Bipolar and its treatment for professionals

Bipolar and its treatment for professionals

Bipolar disorder is a mental health disorder that interferes with the work of the individuals. It has a huge impact on the mood, concentration and activity levels of the individual. This disorder causes shift in the mood of the individual. These shifts fluctuate between mania (high) and depressive (low)

Stress and Bipolar disorder act a debilitating condition for the individual. Huge amount of stress in the lives of the professionals adds on to the illness. There is a sensory overload perception when the individual comes under stress.

The individuals with bipolar disorder go through

Mania: where the individual has an “Elated mood”. He/she is excited to perform the task. Usually distracted and is full of energy.

Depression: where the individual has a “Sad mood”. The individual generally doesn’t show up to work. They have a loss of interest in tasks alongside they perceive themselves to be worthless and have feelings of guilt.

Bipolar symptoms make the individual face discrimination. They have elated perception of negative events. People with bipolar disorder can cope with stress at the workplace by:

  • Taking regular works at the workplace
  • Practice mindful meditation and breathing practices
  • Reach out to support system       

Bipolar disorder includes severe mood swings which are more intense and disrupt the everyday functioning of the individual. The initial manifestation of bipolar disorder typically occurs during adolescence or early adulthood, manifesting as either a manic or depressive episode.

There are 2 types of bipolar disorder:

  1. Bipolar I disorder: Cyclic changes between mania and major depressive episodes with at least one mania episode
  2. Bipolar II disorder: Episodes of major depression and hypomania.

The diagnosis criteria of Bipolar according to DSM-5 are:

Bipolar I:

Mania Episode:

  1. Distinct period of abnormal and persistent irritable mood and goal directed activity which lasts at least 1 week and is present for most of the day.
  2. Three of the symptoms should be present that cause a significant change in the usual behaviour, these are:
  3. Inflated self esteem
  4. Decreased need for sleep
  5. More talkative than usual
  6. Flight of ideas
  7. Distractibility
  8. Increased and abnormal goal directed activity
  9. excessive engagement in pursuits that carry a risk of unpleasant outcomes.
  1. There is marked impairment in the occupational, social, personal life of the individual or require a hospitalization to prevent self-harm or harm to others.
  2. The phase is not a result of intake of physiological substances or any other medical condition.

Major Depressive Episode:

  1. 5 or more symptoms should be present during the period of 2 weeks and include one of the symptoms of
  2. Depressed Mood
  3. Lose of interest or pleasure
  4. I am depressed most of the day.  
  5. Markedly diminished loss of interest in almost all activities most of the day
  6. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain without any increase or decrease in appetite.
  7. Insomnia
  8. Psychomotor agitation or retardation every day
  9. Fatigue or loss of energy
  10. Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt
  11. Diminished or inability to focus or think nearly every day
  1. Persistent suicidal ideation that continues to recur. 
  2. The symptoms cause distress and impair with the occupational, social and personal functioning of the individual
  3. Doesn’t result from physiological effects of a substance or any other medical condition.

Bipolar I can act as a comorbid symptom with the following disorders:

  1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
  2. Bipolar II and cyclothymic disorder
  3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  4. Panic Disorder
  5. PTSD
  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  7. Personality Disorder

Bipolar II:

Hypomanic Episode:

  1. Distinct period of abnormal and persistent irritable mood and activity which lasts at least 4 consecutive days and is present for most of the day.
  2. Three or more of the following symptoms should be present:
  3. Inflated Self-Esteem
  4. Decreased need for sleep
  5. More talkative than usual
  6. Flight of ideas
  7. Distractibility
  8. Increased in goal directed activity
  9. Excessive potential for painful activities that can produce self-harm in many forms
  1. Increased in abnormal and persistent goal directed activity with no or minimal sleep requirement.
  2. Changes in mood and disturbance of emotions are and can be visible by others
  3. Not severe enough to cause impairment in the social and occupational life of the individual but if the symptoms of psychosis exist, possibility of mania increases which can lead to the diagnosis for Bipolar I.
  4. The episode is not a result of physiological substances or is not a result of any medical condition.  

Major Depressive Episode:

  1. 5 or more symptoms should be present alongside
  2. Depressed Mood
  3. Loss of interest or pleasure

Over a period of 2 weeks with a cyclic change of mood followed or preceded by hypomania. These are:

  1. Depressed mood for most of day and nearly every day
  2. Diminished interest or pleasure in activities most of days nearly every day
  3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or significant weight gain and an abnormal increase or decrease in appetite.
  4. Insomnia
  5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day for most of the days
  6. Fatigue or loss of energy
  7. Feelings of worthlessness and self-doubt alongside indecisiveness nearly every day 
  8. Recurrent thoughts of suicide, or a suicide attempt or plans relating to self-harm.
  1. Significant distress alongside impairment in social, occupational, personal lives of the individual.
  2. Episode is not a result of physiological effects of a drug or is not a result of medical impairment.

Bipolar II act as a comorbid symptom for the following disorders:

  1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
  2. Cyclothymic Disorder
  3. Schizophrenia spectrum and related disorders
  4. Panic and anxiety disorders
  5. Substance use disorders
  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  7. Personality Disorders
  8. Bipolar I disorder

Certain Risk Factors involved in developing Bipolar I and II disorder;

Environmental: More common in higher income countries than in low-income countries. Divorced or widowed individuals have a greater risk factor.

Genetic and Physiological: Family history is one of the biggest reasons for the development of the disorder.

Incidence of bipolar II increase among the individual who are related to the individual having a full blown bipolar II disorder.

Course Modifiers: After having an episode of mania the incidence of psychosis increases making the individual more prone to develop schizophrenia.

 Treatment techniques used by the professionals:

  1. Psychotherapies: Therapy helps the people to cope with symptoms and help in maintaining positive social, occupational and personal lives. These are:
  2. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: The examination of negative emotions i.e., irritability or depressive. Alongside negative emotions, thinking pattern change i.e., elated self-esteem or self-doubt and self-guilt. Managing symptoms, avoiding triggers for relapse and problem solving are the main treatment patterns used for bipolar disorder.
  3. Family Focused Therapy: Living with a person with bipolar can be difficult causing strain in the family and the marital life of the individual. It helps to address the issues of the work place alongside home environment. Educating family members about the disease and coping with the symptoms is the main component of the treatment also read here How to get your period in one hour?
  4. Self-Management techniques: Keeping stress in check; seeking support; making healthy choices in sleeping and eating; monitoring moods etc help to keep the symptoms in check and reducing the chance of relapse.
  1. Medications: Mood stabilizers and anti-psychotics are the most common used to treat bipolar symptoms. Anti-Depressants also play an important role to target sleep and anxiety.
  1. Hospitalization: Hospitalization may be recommended if the individual is highly suicidal or symptoms of psychosis can be seen. Excessive excited and elation can also land a person harm and also into the hospital.

If you’re looking for a “Psychologist near me” or “Best psychiatrist near me“, visit TalktoAngel, a platform that connects you to the best online mental health counselors.

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